الحلقة 1 : من سلسلة حلقات المختصر المفيد من غير تعقيد ….!!!

Types of immunity :-

1- innate immunity

2- adaptive ( acquired ) immunity .

.

* Innate immunity :-

-antigen independent ( No require antigen )

– invariant ( generalized )

– early , limited specifity .

– the first line of defense .

– not have memory .

 

*Cells of innate immunity :-

1- Neutrophil

2- eosinophil

3- basophil

4- NK cells ( natural killer )

5- macrophage

6- mast cells .

 

*Adaptive immunity :-

– antigen dependent ( require antigen )

– variable

– later , highly specifity

– have memory .

– mediated by lymphocytes .

– may give lifelong immunity .

 

* Cells of adaptive immunity :-

1- T-lymphocyte ( CD4 – CD8 )

2- B-lymphocyte .

3- dendritic cells .

 

* antigen :- substance capable of inducing specific immune response .

 

White Blood Cells ( WBCs ) :-

-directional movement of WBCs by :- Chemotaxis

There are two main types of WBC involved in the adaptive immune response :-

1- antigen – presenting cells (APCs ) :- it is activate T-cell , example : macrophage

2- Lymphocytes :- consist of two types :- 1- T-cell 2- B-cell

 

*Cells of innate immunity :-

1- Neutrophil :-

-Function :- Phagocytosis .

-Antigen Receptor :- No .

-short life span .

 

2- eosinophil :-

-Function:- Parasites killer . e.g ( schistosoma , helminthes )

– Antigen Receptor :- No .

3- Basophil :-

-Function:- Important in allergic disorders

– Antigen receptor :- No

– Found in IgE .

 

4- NK cell :-

Function : kill tumors and viruses infected cells .

Antigen receptor :- No

 

5- macrophage :-

Function : phagocytosis and antigen presentation to T-cell .

Antigen Receptor :- No

 

6- Mast cell :-

Function : Kill parasites .

Antigen receptor :- No

-Found in IgE.

– Found in connective Tissue .

 

* Cells of adaptive immunity :-

1- T-lymphocyte :-

-Function :- the main regulators of immune system

-Antigen Receptor :- Yes .

– maturation in thymus .

 

2- B-lymphocyte :-

– Function :- Production of antibodies .

– Antigen Receptor :- Yes .

– Maturation in Bone Marrow .

– Regulated By T-cells .

 

3- dendritic cells :-

– Function :- transport antigen and activate T-cell

 

*Monocytes :-

– Function :- to become macrophage .

– Both monocyte and macrophage act as phagocytosis .

 

*Lymphocytes :-

– Responsible for the adaptive immune response.

– there are 2 classes :-

1- T-lymphocytes . ( Low and high Zone tolerance ) ( for cellular immunity )

2- B-lymphocytes. ( high zone tolerance ) ( for humoral immunity )

 

* T-lymphocytes may differentiate into several classes of effector cells :-

1- Helper T lymphocytes ( CD4 ) :- Secrete Cytokinase . and help other cell to mount immune response .

2- Cytotoxic T lymphocyte ( CD8 ) :- kill virus infected or allogenic .

3- Regulatory T lymphocytes :- Help to mediate Immuno Tolerance .

 

* Lymphoid Organs :-

1- Primary lymphoid organs :- consist of Bone marrow and Thymus

2- Secondary Lymphoid organs :- consist of lymph nodes , spleen , mucosa – associated lymphoid tissue ( MALT ) e.g :- tonsils , peyer patches,appendix, bronchial, mammary tissues.

 

 

General Information of Immunology :-

 

* Antibodies ( immunoglobulin ) :-

– it is proteins secreted from B-Lymphocytes ( plasma cell )

-there are 5 classes of immunoglobulin :-

1- IgM :- the most Ig secreted in primary immune responses . and represent the cell surface receptor of B-lymphocytes .

2- IgG :- the major Ig found in the blood

3- IgD :- the minor Ig .

4- IgE :- stimulate mast cells and cause them release histamine .

5- IgA:- Found in secretion , Such as Saliva & breast Milk .

 

* Role of antibodies :-

1- Precipitation

2- Agglutination

3- Virus Neutralization .

4- Toxin Neutralization .

5-Complement Fixation .

6- Opsonezation :- antibody molcules can coat cellular antigen making it easier for phagocyte .

 

– Complements :- series of proteins in the blood , that can mediate lysis red cells .

 

– lymphocytes can be detected by using :- Immunoflurescence technique .

 

– the part of antigen recognized by the antigen combining sites of receptors called antigenic determinant or epitope .

 

– Affinity :- Binding in homogenous system .

– Avidity :- Binding in hetrogenous system

 

Immunoglobulin in Body :-

 

1- IgG :-

– IgG is The smallest antibody in the human.

– IgG Found in large amount in blood .

– IgG can cross placenta .

– IgG antibodies are involved in the secondary immune response

– IgG is The most common antibody involved in warm antibody

-IgG is monomeric immunoglobulin

 

2- IgM :-

– IgM is largest antibody in the human ( highest in electrophoresis )

– IgM have five molecule (pentamer immunoglobulin )

– IgM can not cross placenta

– IgM is the main antibody involved in primary immune response

– IgM are efficient activator of the complement fixation

– IgM Increased of IgM cause cold agglutination syndrome

– IgM represent the cell surface receptor of B-lymphocytes .

– IgM is blood grouping antibody .

 

3- IgE :-

– It is found in small amounts in serum tissue.

– IgE only been found in mammals

– IgE plays an important role in allergy , parasitic worms.

– IgE is monomeric immunoglobulin .

-IgE found in mast cells and basophil

IgE are un flexible

 

4- IgA :-

– IgA is the main immunoglobulin found in mucous secretions, including tears, saliva.

– IgA prevent attachment of viruses and bacteria to epithelial surfaces.

-IgA dimmer imunogloblin

 

5- IgD :-

– IgD function is not known,

-IgD is monomeric imunoglobulin

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