Category Archives: معلومة قصيرة..short notes..

معلومة..فصيرة… 1short notes

معلومة..فصيرة… 1short notes

المؤلف Abdullah Nageib‏ في تحاليل طبية

اصدقائي الاعزاء..بعد مرور عيد الاضحي المبارك والاجازة الطويلة والعطله بعد العطله فاننا نطالب



عطلة قبل العطلة للتجهز للعطلة،

و عطلة بعد العطلة لاخذ راحة من العطلة

فلنبدا باولي حلقات مسلسنا الجديد معلومة قصيرة…short notes..وذلك حتي ننعش ذاكرتنا بعد حالة الركود والخمول …ولنبدأ باولي الحلقات ونبذه مختصره عن الهيموجلوبين..ونقول ونتكلم…بطريقه جديد انجليش حبيتين

ولكن بطريقه منتظمه لكي لا نشعر بالملل…


* Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying pigment that gives blood its red color and also the predominant protein in red blood cells.


About 90% of hemoglobin is hemoglobin A. (The “A” stands for adult type.)

Although one chemical component accounts for 92% of hemoglobin A, approximately 8% of hemoglobin A is made up of minor components that are chemically slightly different.


These minor components include hemoglobin A1c, A1b, A1a1, and A1a2.

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a minor component of hemoglobin to which glucose is bound.

HbA1c also is referred to as glycosylated or glucosylated hemoglobin.



* HbA1c levels depend on the blood glucose concentration.

That is, the higher the glucose concentration in blood, the higher the level of HbA1c. Levels of HbA1c are not influenced by daily fluctuations in the blood glucose concentration but reflect the average glucose levels over the prior six to eight weeks.


Therefore, HbA1c is a useful indicator of how well the blood glucose level has been controlled in the recent past and may be used to monitor the effects of diet, exercise, and drug therapy on blood glucose in diabetic patients.


In healthy, non-diabetic patients the HbA1c level is less than 7% of total hemoglobin.


It has been demonstrated that the complications of diabetes can be delayed or prevented if the HbA1c level can be kept close to 7%. In general, values should be kept below 8%.



* A heart attack (also known as a myocardial infarction) is the death of heart muscle from the sudden blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot.

Coronary arteries are blood vessels that supply the heart muscle with blood and oxygen.


Blockage of a coronary artery deprives the heart muscle of blood and oxygen,causing injury to the heart muscle.

Injury to the heart muscle causes chest pain and chest pressure sensation.


If blood flow is not restored to the heart muscle within 20 to 40 minutes, irreversible death of the heart muscle will begin to occur.

Muscle continues to die for six to eight hours at which time the heart attack usually is “complete.”

The dead heart muscle is eventually replaced by scar tissue.


وبكده نكون انتهينا من حلقتنا…والي اللقاء بمعلومة جديدة…وشكرا جزيلا…كان معكم عبدالله نجيب


معلومة قصيرة…short notes 2

معلومة قصيرة…short notes 2

المؤلف Abdullah Nageib‏ في تحاليل طبية

والان الي المعلومة القصيرة الثانيه ونتكلم عن

Tuberculosis facts



* Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection, primarily in the lungs (a pneumonia), caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is spread usually from person to person by breathing infected air during close contact.


TB can remain in an inactive (dormant) state for years without causing symptoms or spreading to other people.

– When the immune system of a patient with dormant TB is weakened, the TB can become active (reactivate) and cause infection in the lungs or other parts of the body.


– The risk factors for acquiring TB include close-contact situations, alcohol and IV drug abuse, and certain diseases (for example, diabetes, cancer, and HIV) and occupations (for example, health-care workers).


– The most common symptoms and signs of TB are fatigue, fever, weight loss, coughing, and night sweats.


– The diagnosis of TB involves skin tests, chest X-rays, sputum analysis (smear and culture), and PCR tests to detect the genetic material of the causative bacteria.


– Inactive tuberculosis may be treated with an antibiotic, isoniazid (INH), to prevent the TB infection from becoming active.


– Active TB is treated, usually successfully, with INH in combination with one or more of several drugs, including rifampin (Rifadin), ethambutol (Myambutol), pyrazinamide, and streptomycin.


– Drug-resistant TB is a serious, as yet unsolved, public-health problem, especially in Southeast Asia, the countries of the former Soviet Union, Africa, and in prison populations. Poor patient compliance, lack of detection of resistant strains, and unavailable therapy are key reasons for the development of drug-resistant TB.


– The occurrence of HIV has been responsible for an increased frequency of tuberculosis. Control of HIV in the future, however, should substantially decrease the frequency of TB.


وبس اكده…فقط..وايه رائكوا ف اللي قلناه

وكل عام وانتم بخير..

معلومة قصيرة..short notes..3

معلومة قصيرة..short notes..3

المؤلف Abdullah Nageib‏ في تحاليل طبية

اصدقائي الاعزاء مع صباح يوم جديد عليكواسعد الله صباحكم


اوالان مع معلومة جديدة ونتكلم عن


western blot analysis


western blot analysis (also known as immunoblotting) is used to detect a specific protein in a cell, tissue, organ, or body fluid.


The technique depends on the reaction of an antibody with a protein that is immobilized on a thin membrane .


  • The sample is solubilized with detergent, and the proteins are then separated by electrophoresis in a polyacrylamide gel.


  • After electrophoresis, the gel is placed next to a thin, synthetic membrane that has a strong affinity for proteins.

the gel and membrane are placed between sheets of absorbent paper in a blotting tank. This arrangement allows buffer to flow across the gel and through the thin membrane.


As a result, the proteins in the gel are transferred to the membrane by capillary action. Transfer of the proteins to the membrane may also be accomplished by an electrical current.


  • After the transfer step, the membrane is incubated with an antibody to a specific protein. This antibody may be produced in an experimental animal such as a mouse or rabbit, or in cells as a monoclonal antibody.

The antibody may be coupled to an enzyme which can then be used to detect the antibody on the membrane.

  • The membrane is incubated with a substrate that is converted to a luminescent compound after reaction with this enzyme.


  •  A sheet of X-ray film is then placed next to the membrane, which allows visualization of individual proteins.


In a variation of the technique, an unlabeled first antibody is used to bind the protein on the membrane, and a second antibody, directed against the first antibody, is used for detection.


The main advantage of western analysis is that it does not require isotopic labeling of proteins and can be used with tissues and organs, as well as cultured cells.


A variation of the western blot is used to identify antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus in clinical specimens and donated blood.


Viral proteins are fractionated by electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane as describe above. The membrane is then incubated with the clinical sample. If antibodies against HIV are present, they will react with one or more of the viral proteins on the membrane.


Such an assay is being used to estimate the extent of infection with the retrovirus XMRV in the general population.


Note that

  • The w in western blot is not capitalized.
  •  The n of northern analysis (a method in which RNA is detected on a thin membrane) is also lower case.
  •  However, Southern analysis deserves a capital S – it’s the last name of Edwin Southern, who in 1975 developed the technique for detecting DNA immobilized on a membrane.



ارجو ان تنال هذه المعلومة ع رضا سعادتكم..ولكم مني كل احترام وتقدير..وشكرا جزيلا

عبدالله نجيب

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